Is the Universe Expanding or is it an illusion?

Is the universe expanding from a Big Bang or is it a misinterpretation of the redshift of light?

The Big Bang and the expanding universe probably are illusions that fit the progressive agenda of an ever evolving universe.

It also closes the door on the infinite series of cause and effect that requires a first cause outside the system to get it started, aka God/ creator/ overarching, pre-existing force.  If time itself began with the Big Bang, there can be no “before,” thus cutting off any consideration of a first cause.

The Big Bang theory is based on three things:

1.) An interpretation of the redshift of light from other galaxies as speed of recession,

2.) One of many solutions to Einstein’s field equations that favored an expanding universe. Einstein’s own solution included a cosmological constant that resulted in a non-expanding universe.

3.) The Cosmic Microwave Background (or CMB) interpreted as the far red shifted afterglow of the Big Bang.

Redshift is really the shift of the dark absorption lines of elements to longer, redder, wavelengths. Hydrogen is usually used because of its abundance.

Before discussing redshift to distance let me set the stage. It’s the 1920s.

Before telescopes were powerful enough to see individual stars in other galaxies, our galaxy was assumed to be the entire universe and galaxies were assumed to be clouds of glowing gas called nebulae (meaning clouds) within our galaxy.

We now estimate there are over 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe.

Cepheid variable stars with the same variability period had been determined to be the same brightness everywhere, which made them a “standard candle” to determine distance, first in our galaxy and then in other galaxies. When individual stars were first seen in other galaxies, using the most powerful telescope of the time, nebulae were identified as other “island universes,” aka galaxies.

Redshift of galaxy cluster (right) vs. solar spectrum

Redshift of stars in our galaxy were determined to be caused by their speed moving away from us. The faster, the greater the redshift by the Doppler Effect, where light is “stretched” by the speed of the source.

Redshifts in nebulae (nearby galaxies) were known to be greater than redshifts within our own galaxy.

Edwin Hubble discovered the red shift to distance relationship for nearby galaxies, based on Cepheid variable stars within them. By this he calculated that farther is redder.

Because the redshift from nearby stars in our galaxy had been recognized as indicating their speed away from us, this new redshift was assumed to mean speed of recession of galaxies.

Hubble noted that the redshift to distance relationship was only linear if he assumed fixed, not receding galaxies.

He was also uncomfortable with the extreme speeds calculated from redshift which were rapidly approaching the speed of light with increasing distance.

His redshift to distance calculations resulted in very small universe with a “Big Bang” point of origin only 2 billion years ago, which is less than the calculated age of the earth at 4.5 billion years. Later adjustments extended it to 13.7 years ago, which is still only 3 times the age of the earth.

He spent the rest of his life trying to convince others that they were wrong about redshift meaning speed of recession.

Today’s redshift calculations exclude nearby galaxies as being affected by gravity of the Local Group of galaxies.

Cosmological and relativistic terms have been added to the calculations, so the relationship is no longer linear

A redshift of 1, as a simple ratio, is equal to the speed of light; we now have redshifts greater than 8.

This made it necessary for cosmologists to assume that space itself between galaxies is expanding faster than the speed of light, the upper limit of speed for ordinary matter.

 Fritz Zwicky, a contemporary of  Hubble, proposed that the red shift is from loss of energy by gravitational interaction over time that fits observations better than other non-speed related theories.

To be a valid theory, the redshift must occur uniformly for the entire spectrum and not blur or obscure distant objects by scattering light. All theories based on repeated collisions in space do not fit these requirements.

History rewritten: Modern cosmologists claim Zwicky’s theory was about collisions. His original paper[1] discussed collision related theories and eliminated them in favor of gravitational influence over time and distance.

More recently Steven Weinberg and others have raised speculation that mirrored Zwicky’s theory of gravitational influence over time causing red shifts, but they were not ready to abandon the expanding universe paradigm.

“The frequency of light is also affected by the gravitational field of the universe, and it is neither useful nor strictly correct to interpret the frequency shifts of light…in terms of the special relativistic Doppler effect.” Steven Weinberg and Jaylant Narlikar and John Wheeler,  quoted in “Galaxy Redshifts Reconsidered,” by Sten Odenwald and Rick Fienberg, Sky &Telescope, February 1993 issue.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is interpreted as the far red shifted afterglow of the Big Bang. However, the temperature of thinly dispersed matter in space as a result of residual starlight was earlier calculated and predicted by Guillaume, (5 K < T < 6 K),26 Eddington, (T = 3.1 K), Regener and Nernst, (T = 2.8 K), McKellar and Herzberg, (T = 2.3 K), Finlay-Freundlich and Max Born, (1.9 K < T < 6.0 K) based on a universe in dynamical equilibrium without expansion.[2]  Penzias and Wilson experimentally found the cosmic microwave background radiation to be consistent with a temperature of 2.7 K. Gamow, who had claimed to be the originator of the Big Bang Theory, also erroneously claimed he had been the first to predict the background temperature and claimed the result as evidence for the Big Bang. However, his estimate was not only not the first, but was 7 K with an upper limit of 50K.

Did Einstein really say his cosmological constant (for a non-expanding universe) was his biggest mistake? 

The so-called Einstein quote that his cosmological constant was the “biggest blunder” of his life was only claimed by George Gamow  in 1970, 15 years after Einstein died.

Einstein’s friends and research associates denied it but claimed that, if he said it, it was a joke. (the polite way to avoid calling Gamow a liar.)

Conclusion: If the universe is not expanding from a Big Bang, it can be far larger and much older than the Big Bang theory allows. The observable universe, observed back to approx. 13.5 billion years, may be a small corner of a much grander universe, which could allow more time for formation of galaxies and larger structures without the proposed dark matter influence. Exotic inventions such as expanding space, dark energy and dark matter may not be necessary.  Recent work using  near-infrared data from the Spitzer space telescope to more accurately estimate mass of numerous galaxies explains galaxy rotation speeds without resorting to exotic dark matter.[3]

 

[1] Original Report: “On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines Through Interstellar Space,” By F. Zwicky, Norman Bridge Laboratory Of Physics, California Institute Of Technology,  August 26, 1929

[2] History of the 2.7 K Temperature Prior to Penzias and Wilson” A. K. T. Assis, Instituto de Fisica “Gleb Wataghin” Universidade Estadual deCampinas 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil M. C. D. Neves Departamento de Fisica Universidade Estadual de Maringa 87020-900 Maringa, PR, Brasil

[3] “The Radial Acceleration Relation in Rotationally Supported Galaxies,” by Stacy S. McGaugh and Federico Lelli, Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, James M. Schombert, Department of Physics, University of Oregon (Dated: September 21, 2016)    arXiv: 1609.05917v1 astro-physics. GA


Want to know more about this and other Modern Myths including climate change, evolution, origin of life or quantum physics? See related posts on this website or buy the book Perverted Truth Exposed: How Progressive Philosophy Has Corrupted Science in print or as e-book/Kindle on line at WND Superstore (the publisher) or at Amazon, Books-a-Million or Barnes & Noble .

Today’s Food is a Modern Agricultural Miracle, So Why is It Under Attack? — Watts Up With That?

Guest essay by Steve Goreham Agriculture is under attack. Environmentalists label modern farming as unsustainable, blaming farming for polluting the planet and destroying the climate. But today’s food is abundant and nutritious—a modern agricultural miracle. From 1961 to 2013, world population more than doubled from 3.1 to 7.2 billion. But agricultural output more than tripled […]

via Today’s Food is a Modern Agricultural Miracle, So Why is It Under Attack? — Watts Up With That?

TOP 10 Climate Change Lies Exposed — Climatism

WITHOUT a shadow of a doubt, the greatest scientific hoax ever perpetrated against mankind is that human’s modern life (including your sandwich) is causing catastrophic “climate change” or “global warming” or “climate disruption” or “climate breakdown”, depending on the day and the activist concerned. THIS must watch 5 minute video, backed up by peer-reviewed-scientific-evidence and […]

via TOP 10 Climate Change Lies Exposed — Climatism

45 Communist Goals, 1958, – most are accomplished

CURRENT COMMUNIST GOALS, 1958 (note how many have been accomplished)

From The Naked Communist by Dr. Cleon Skousen, 1958  read into the Congressional Record in 1963

  1. U.S. acceptance of coexistence as the only alternative to atomic war Y (false choice)
  2. U.S. willingness to capitulate in preference to engaging in atomic war. Y (false choice)
  3. Develop the illusion that total disarmament [by] the United States would be a demonstration of moral strength. Y
  4. Permit free trade between all nations regardless of Communist affiliation and regardless of whether or not items could be used for war. Y
  5. Extension of long-term loans to Russia and Soviet satellites. Y
  6. Provide American aid to all nations regardless of Communist (or Islamist) domination. Y
  7. Grant recognition of Red China. Admission of Red China to the U.N. Y
  8. Set up East and West Germany as separate states in spite of Khrushchev’s promise in 1955 to settle the German question by free elections under supervision of the U.N. Y
  9. Prolong the conferences to ban atomic tests because the United States has agreed to suspend tests as long as negotiations are in progress. Y
  10. Allow all Soviet satellites individual representation in the U.N. Y
  11. Promote the U.N. as the only hope for mankind. If its charter is rewritten, demand that it be set up as a one-world government with its own independent armed forces. (Some Communist leaders believe the world can be taken over as easily by the U.N. as by Moscow. Sometimes these two centers compete with each other as they are now doing in the Congo.) Y
  12. Resist any attempt to outlaw the Communist Party. Y
  13. Do away with all loyalty oaths. Y
  14. Continue giving Russia access to the U.S. Patent Office. Y
  15. Capture one or both of the political parties in the United States. Y
  16. Use technical decisions of the courts to weaken basic American institutions by claiming their activities violate civil rights. Y
  17. Get control of the schools. Use them as transmission belts for socialism and current Communist propaganda. Soften the curriculum. Get control of teachers’ associations. Put the party line in textbooks. Y
  18. Gain control of all student newspapers. Y
  19. Use student riots to foment public protests against programs or organizations which are under Communist attack. Y
  20. Infiltrate the press. Get control of book-review assignments, editorial writing, policymaking positions. Y
  21. Gain control of key positions in radio, TV, and motion pictures. Y
  22. Continue discrediting American culture by degrading all forms of artistic expression. An American Communist cell was told to “eliminate all good sculpture from parks and buildings, substitute shapeless, awkward and meaningless forms.” Y
  23. Control art critics and directors of art museums. “Our plan is to promote ugliness, repulsive, meaningless art.” Y
  24. Eliminate all laws governing obscenity by calling them “censorship” and a violation of free speech and free press. Y
  25. Break down cultural standards of morality by promoting pornography and obscenity in books, magazines, motion pictures, radio, and TV. Y
  26. Present homosexuality, degeneracy and promiscuity as “normal, natural, healthy.” Y
  27. Infiltrate the churches and replace revealed religion with “social” religion. Discredit the Bible and emphasize the need for intellectual maturity which does not need a “religious crutch.” Y
  28. Eliminate prayer or any phase of religious expression in the schools on the ground that it violates the principal of “separation of church and state.” Y
  29. Discredit the American Constitution by calling it inadequate, old-fashioned, out of step with modern needs, a hindrance to cooperation between nations on a worldwide basis. Y
  30. Discredit the American Founding Fathers. Present them as selfish aristocrats who had no concern for the “common man.” Y
  31. Belittle all forms of American culture and discourage the teaching of American history on the ground that it was only a minor part of the “big picture.” Give more emphasis to Russian history since the Communists took over. Y
  32. Support any socialist movement to give centralized control over any part of the culture–education, social agencies, welfare programs, mental health clinics, etc. Y
  33. Eliminate all laws or procedures which interfere with the operation of the Communist apparatus. Y
  34. Eliminate the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Y
  35. Discredit and eventually dismantle the FBI. N
  36. Infiltrate and gain control of more unions. Y
  37. Infiltrate and gain control of big business.  Y/N
  38. Transfer some of the powers of arrest from the police to social agencies. Treat all behavioral problems as psychiatric disorders which no one but psychiatrists can understand [or treat].  Y
  39. Dominate the psychiatric profession and use mental health laws as a means of gaining coercive control over those who oppose Communist goals. Y
  40. Discredit the family as an institution. Encourage promiscuity and easy divorce. Y
  41. Emphasize the need to raise children away from the negative influence of parents. Attribute prejudices, mental blocks and retarding of children to suppressive influence of parents. Y
  42. Create the impression that violence and insurrection are legitimate aspects of the American tradition; that students and special-interest groups should rise up and use [“]united force[“] to solve economic, political or social problems. Y
  43. Overthrow all colonial governments before native populations are ready for self-government.Y
  44. Internationalize the Panama Canal. Y
  45. Repeal the Connally reservation so the United States cannot prevent the World Court from seizing jurisdiction [over domestic problems. Give the World Court jurisdiction] over nations and individuals alike. N

DRACONIAN Climate Change Policies Making World Hunger Worse

Climatism

World Hunger UN Climate policyClimate policies are diverting resources from measures that directly reduce hunger, which according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation is on the rise. | The Australian

ANTHROPOGENIC “climate change” and the control of carbon dioxide, via the supply of energy, has deep roots in a radical yet gravely misguided campaign to reduce the world’s population.

A misanthropic agenda engineered by the environmental movement in the mid 1970’s, who realised that doing something about “global warming” would play to quite a number of its social agendas.

THE goal was advanced, most notably, by The Club Of Rome (Environmental think-tank and consultants to the UN) – a group of mainly European scientists and academics, who used computer modelling to warn that the world would run out of finite resources if population growth were left unchecked.

The common enemy of humanity is man.
In searching for a new enemy to unite us, 

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Where Socialism and Communism got it wrong

Where Socialism and Communism got it wrong:

Assumption: Man’s nature can be molded to serve the state altruistically

Truth: Man’s nature is fixed; self comes first and work for the state fulfills self-interest, but only after his/her basic needs are met.

Assumption: People are only members of a supposedly uniform group

Truth: People are individuals and each has value; groups are not uniform

Assumption: Competition is bad and unfair

Truth: Competition is good; it produces more and better products and services at lower prices for all through incentives

Assumption: Winning is unfair to losers and all others

Truth: Winning is good for all; it encourages people to strive to do better and gives everyone a goal to strive for.

Assumption: Equal outcomes are more fair

Truth: Equal outcomes are unfair to achievers, but equal opportunity is good; outcomes will vary based on ability and effort; equal opportunity encourages people to try harder and to do better. Equal outcome penalizes people with more skills, talent and that work harder.  It is a “race to mediocrity.”

Assumption: The economy is a zero-sum game; the pie is a fixed size; if some get more it is because others are deprived.

Truth: The economy is a dynamic, growing system; the pie can expand with new opportunities, goods, services; success of one does not detract from future successes of others. A rising tide raises all boats.

Assumption: “The Rich” are evil and unfair; they are hoarding so others must do without

Truth: “The Rich,” aka successful people, invest, employ, build, improve and give charitably to humane and environmentally friendly causes.

Assumption: Big Corporations are bad; they’re only after the money and don’t care about the environment or the people.

Truth: See Truth: “The Rich” above; as models they incentivize others to compete for market share through innovation and extra effort. They also must live in the world they create so that care for society and the environment are naturally important to them.

Assumption: Big Corporations exploit workers

Truth: Corporations provide employees with income and benefits they otherwise wouldn’t have. It is in their best interest to pay people a wage that allows them to buy the goods produced or sold. To keep the best employees, wages are kept competitive.

Assumption: Big Corporations are greedy and keep profits for themselves.

Truth: Corporations provide wages and valuable goods and services, but wouldn’t stay in business if they got nothing from it. Corporations must have reserves to survive in bad times, meet payrolls, grow the business, provide secure retirement for employees, support advertising, research and innovation, invest or buy smaller businesses to expand product lines and grow market share.

WWF After Your Money Again, Else The Turtles Will Get It!

NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT

By Paul Homewood

Give us the money, or the turtles will get it!

image

Rswwfau 4863 web

A new study reveals rising temperatures are turning green turtle populations almost completely female in the northern Great Barrier Reef.

More than 200,000 nesting females—one of the largest populations in the world—call the northern Great Barrier Reef home. But this population could eventually crash without more males, according to the study published in Current Biology

How does climate change impact sex?

Because incubation temperature of turtle eggs determines the animal’s sex, a warmer nest results in more females. Increasing temperatures in Queensland’s north, linked to climate change, have led to virtually no male northern green sea turtles being born.

For the study, scientists caught green turtles at the Howick Group of islands where both northern and southern green turtle populations forage in the Great Barrier Reef. Using a combination of endocrinology and genetic tests, researchers identified the…

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